John Duns Scotus (/66–) was one of the most important and The Ordinatio, which Scotus seems to have been revising up to his. John Duns, commonly called Duns Scotus is generally considered to be one of the three most . The standard version is the Ordinatio (also known as the Opus oxoniense), a revised version of lectures he gave as a bachelor at Oxford. Marenbon, J. (). Duns Scotus, Ordinatio, Prologue, part 1, qu. unica. [Other].

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He was transferred to the Franciscan studium at Cologne, probably beginning his duties as lector in October Intellectual appetite is aimed at objects as presented by the intellect and sense appetite at objects as presented by the senses.

Therefore this opinion posits as much commonness as Plato posited in the ideas. Thus far Scotus is simply repeating Aristotelian orthodoxy, and none of his contemporaries or immediate predecessors would have found any of this at all strange.

Authors/Duns Scotus/Ordinatio – The Logic Museum

ordlnatio But in the present case the specific entity does not include through identity the individual entity, nor the converse, but only some third [thing], of which both are quasi per se parts, includes them both through identity, and therefore removes that most perfect composition that is from thing and thing. Then we check out the concept to see whether it is in every respect better to be good than not-good.

Scotus consistently denies that we can have intuitive cognition of non-sensible objects such as angels or universals in this life. oordinatio

This essay first lays out what is known about Scotus’s life and the dating of his works. References to Aristotle and quotations from other authors come from the footnotes to this edition. Like other realist philosophers of the period such as Aquinas and Henry of Ghent Scotus recognised the need for an intermediate distinction that was not merely conceptual but not fully real or mind-dependent either.

But only God is pure actuality. He says that they have to be predicated univocally of God; otherwise the whole business of pure perfections won’t make any sense. Finally, he argues that there can be only one such being. Ion Peri hermeneias and Sophistical Refutationsalong with the Theoremata vol. For just as it was said elsewhere Let us briefly outline Scotus’s argument.

So the natural law in the strict sense does not depend on God’s will. The divine nature systematically resists being captured in language. Scotus became Doctor of Theology in and was Franciscan regent master at Paris in — We should not make any distinction between whether a thing exists si est and what it is quid estfor we never know whether something exists, unless we have some concept of what we know to exist.


In Metaphysics V in the old translation [b ], ‘In the foundation of the nature nothing is distinct’. It can be shown, for example, from “composition and simplicity,” from “act and potency,” from “one and many,” from those features which are properties of being.

John Duns Scotus (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

With that distinction in mind, we can examine Scotus’s argument for the existence dhns a first efficient cause:. Ofdinatio now the intellect presents x as good, so I will x ; but later on sdotus intellect presents y as good, so then I will y.

For I concede that matter absolutely, as it is the nature, ordinahio not the ratio of distinction or individuation; for whatever is a nature is whatever genus, total or partial, is not of itself this – and therefore one must ask through what is it this.

Take any such proposition and call it Land call the opposite of Lnot- L. For God is wise and Socrates is wise, but earthworms—though they are certainly beings—are not wise. So besides being the next best thing to a simple concept, it’s the most theoretically fruitful concept we can have of God in this life. Scotus points out that that can’t be right either. Bibliography Primary texts in Latin Cuestiones Cuodlibetales.

Scotus argued that if our thinking were fallible in the way Henry had believed, such illumination could not, even in principle, ensure “certain and pure knowledge. And according to this, some specific difference has a concept not ‘simply simple’, for example, that which is scogus from a form, and some does have a concept ‘simply simple’, that which is taken from the ultimate abstraction of a form about this distinction of specific differences see dist.

Authors/Duns Scotus/Ordinatio

That is, we know him through general concepts that can apply both to him and to other things. That is, my intelligible species of dog only tells me what it is to be a dog; it doesn’t tell me whether any particular dog actually exists. And since we cannot look to the uncreated exemplar by our natural powers, certainty is impossible apart from some special divine illumination.

According to Scotus, God of course is aware of all contingent propositions. God has one volition ad intrabut this one volition can be related to many opposite things ad extra. And since the validity of proper syllogistic inference can be known in just this way, it follows that anything that is seen to be properly derived from first principles by syllogistic inference is also known with certainty.

There was nothing constraining him or forcing him to create one thing rather than another. Since the form of the body is too weak on its own to keep the body in existence indefinitely, however, it gradually decomposes. Five Texts on the Mediaeval Problem of Universals.

The minimum canonical age for receiving holy orders is 25 and it is generally assumed that he would have been ordained as soon as it was permitted. It would seem that he has little choice, given the importance he attaches to our intuitive self-knowledge as I discuss in the next section.


DunsCounty of BerwickKingdom of Scotland. Scotus then argues that a being enjoying the triple primacy is endowed with intellect and will, and that any such being is infinite. The first and most important is the category of substance. For according to the Philosopher, Physics I [ a32 – b5], ‘substance is of itself indivisible’, speaking of parts of the same ratio – and yet, upon the advent of quantity, it is divisible into such parts – indeed it then has such parts.

Anselm’s argument is that we can indeed must predicate of God every predicate that falls into the first category, and that we cannot predicate of God any predicate that falls into the second except metaphorically, perhaps. He is buried in the Church of the Friars Minor there.

And how can there be certain knowledge apart from some immutable basis for that knowledge? With that distinction in mind, we can examine Scotus’s argument for the existence of a first efficient cause: We can very easily see the motivation for the view by recalling that a substantial form is supposed to be what makes a given parcel of matter the definite, unique, individual substance that it scofus. That is, in order to deploy a concept that has already been acquired, one must make some use of sensory data—although the phantasms employed in using a concept already acquired need not be anything like the phantasms from which that concept was abstracted in the first place.

Though quantity is not the formal ratio of the division of something into subjective parts, yet when a quantitative whole is divided into quantitative parts, [Note 8] it is divided per se into [parts] which are of the same ratio ; but the principle of division into certain [parts] is the same dunw the principle of the distinction of those that divide; therefore, just as quantity itself is the principle of that division, so it is the principle of the distinction of those that divide.

The minimum age for ordination was twenty-five, so we can conclude that Scotus was born before 17 March In fact, Scotus says it’s not even true any more, since Christians are to worship on Sunday, not Saturday. Mary was in need of redemption like all other ordonatio beings, but through the merits of Jesus’ crucifixiongiven in advance, she was conceived without the stain of original sin.